Victoria in September 2018: second-driest on record

September rainfall was very much below average across much of Victoria including small areas of lowest on record, making it the State's overall second-driest September on record and driest since 1914. The clear skies and dry soils meant that night time temperatures were very much cooler than average across northern Victoria, but daytime temperatures were generally close to or warmer than average.

Second-driest September

  • September rainfall for Victoria as a whole was 66% below average, making it the State's second-driest September on record and driest since 1914
  • September continued a run of nine consecutive months of below average rainfall for Victoria as a whole
  • Rainfall totals were below average throughout the State, with much of the Mallee and a small area in far East Gippsland receiving less than 20% of their September average
  • The lowest rainfall totals were in the Mallee, where September totals were less than 10 mm through most of the district and Mildura Airport recorded just 0.8 mm
  • The highest totals for the month were in West Gippsland, with Balook the State's wettest site with 107.2 mm
  • In the Northeast, some areas had monthly rainfall deficiencies of more than 100 mm
  • For the State as a whole, the wettest day was on the 7th, when a low pressure trough and cold front brought moderate falls to central and northeastern Victoria, with the highest recorded daily total being 40.4 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley)
  • Numerous sites had either their lowest total September rainfall on record or their lowest total September rainfall for at least 20 years

Coolest nights since 1994

Severe winds at times

  • Wind gusts in excess of 100 km/h were recorded at sites around Victoria several times during the month as cold fronts crossed the State
  • The strongest wind gust recorded during September was 131 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 15th; Mount William in the Grampians and Mount Buller also recorded gusts over 100 km/h during the month
  • After two very windy months in July and August, the total wind run at sites around Victoria was generally close to average

Further information

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Extremes in September 2018
Hottest day 29.9 °C at Mildura Airport on the 11th
Warmest days on average 21.2 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 3.3 °C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day -2.7 °C at Mount Hotham on the 2nd
Coldest night -8.0 °C at Mount Hotham on the 16th
Coolest nights on average -3.0 °C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 9.6 °C at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse
Warmest night 14.3 °C at Mildura Airport on the 6th
Warmest on average overall 13.6 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 0.1 °C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 107.2 mm at Balook
Driest overall 0.8 mm at Mildura Airport
Wettest day 40.4 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley) on the 7th
Strongest wind gust 131 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 15th

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record lowest September total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Dimboola 2.4* 4.9 in 1914 140 41.9
Wickliffe 16.8 20.0 in 1914 138 58.2
Wycheproof 0.8* 2.6 in 1914 131 37.8
Derrinallum (Craigmore) 22.0 22.5 in 1968 121 58.2
Walpeup Research 3.2 4.8 in 1982 80 31.4
Laverton RAAF 11.8 14.4 in 1981 78 48.6
Mildura Airport 0.8 2.0 in 2008 73 26.8
Castlemaine Prison 12.0 15.0 in 2008 53 60.7
Ararat Prison 9.8 15.4 in 2011 50 60.8
Warracknabeal Museum 2.9 9.8 in 2008 49 41.2
Mortlake Racecourse 23.4 23.6 in 2014 25 56.8
Mount Nowa Nowa 26.4 29.2 in 2007 23 62.5
Stawell Aerodrome 7.6 12.6 in 2011 23 50.8
Swan Hill Aerodrome 2.2 6.8 in 2017 22 26.9
Horsham Aerodrome 5.2 10.4 in 2011 21 37.6

* note: there are missing days of rainfall towards the end of the month, but despite showers in the region, neighbouring sites received little or no rain during the last week of the month


Lowest September total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
September
Trentham 31.4 30.7 in 1888* 106.4
Dunolly 10.4 8.3 in 1938 48.0
Maryborough 9.0 4.7 in 1938 51.9
Ouyen (Post Office) 4.0 1.5 in 1938 32.8
Blackwood 27.2 24.9 in 1938* 101.9
Ultima (Post Office) 3.0 2.7 in 1951* 34.2
Annuello 2.4 2.3 in 1957* 27.4
Longerenong 7.4 3.8 in 1957* 40.5
Pira Wild Horse Plains 4.6 3.5 in 1968 31.1
Ballarat Aerodrome 20.4 19.2 in 1972 71.4
Gabo Island Lighthouse 17.6 12.0 in 1972 71.9
Lismore (Post Office) 25.6 25.4 in 1981 62.1
Bullengarook East 27.2 26.2 in 1981* 78.0
Cheltenham Kingston Centre 18.4 15.8 in 1981* 65.8
Toolangi (Mount St Leonard DPI) 52.8 45.2 in 1981* 134.8
Woodend 26.2 23.8 in 1981* 82.2
Mirranatwa (Bowacka) 28.4 27.6 in 1987* 75.2
Avalon Airport 15.0 13.0 in 1981* 44.7

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record lowest September temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Echuca Aerodrome -1.5 on the 17th = -1.5 on the 1st in 2015 62 6.3
Longerenong -3.8 on the 16th -3.5 on the 19th in 2014 54 5.1
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) -2.6 on the 3rd -2.1 on the 26th in 2006 35 5.9
Mortlake Racecourse -3.0 on the 26th -2.9 on the 18th in 2001 27 5.7
Horsham Aerodrome -3.0 on the 29th = -3.0 on the 25th in 2006 21 4.5



Record lowest September mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Rutherglen Research 0.9 1.2 in 1977 104 4.2
Walpeup Research 4.7 5.2 in 1969 68 6.9
Warracknabeal Museum 3.8 3.9 in 1969 45 5.9
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 4.3 4.5 in 1992 34 5.9
Wangaratta Aero 1.7 2.1 in 2007 30 4.6
Redesdale 2.4 2.6 in 1994 25 4.2
Yarrawonga 2.9 3.4 in 1994 24 5.2
Coldstream 3.0 3.9 in 2006 23 5.6
Stawell Aerodrome 4.3 4.6 in 2003 22 6.1
Swan Hill Aerodrome 3.7 4.3 in 2015 21 5.9
Horsham Aerodrome 2.3 2.8 in 2008 20 4.5

Lowest September mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
September
Kerang 5.1 4.5 in 1936* 6.6
Longerenong 2.7 1.3 in 1904* 5.1
Mildura Airport 5.8 5.2 in 1958 7.4
Ouyen (Post Office) 5.0 4.6 in 1968 6.7
East Sale 4.3 4.0 in 1982 5.6
Melbourne Airport 5.7 5.4 in 1982 7.1
Castlemaine Prison 3.3 3.1 in 1982* 5.1
Ararat Prison 3.2 2.9 in 1994 5.1
Bendigo Airport 2.9 2.1 in 1994 4.5
Gelantipy 2.9 2.4 in 1994 4.5
Hamilton Airport 4.7 4.2 in 1994 5.8
Kyabram 4.0 =4.0 in 1994 5.3
Lake Eildon 3.9 =3.9 in 1994 5.6
Mallacoota 6.8 6.5 in 1994 8.3
Mangalore Airport 3.0 2.6 in 1994 5.3
Maryborough 3.7 3.5 in 1994 5.4
Strathbogie 1.8 1.3 in 1994 3.8
Bairnsdale Airport 4.3 4.1 in 1994* 5.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record lowest September mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Coldstream 10.1 = 10.1 in 2003 23 11.4

Lowest September mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
September
Mallacoota 11.9 11.7 in 1995 12.9



Summary statistics for September 2018
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
September
2018
Diff
from
average
Highest for
September
2018
Mean for
September
2018
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
September
2018
Total for
September
2018
Average
for
September
Rank of
September
2018
Fraction of
September
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 21.2 +0.6 29.9 11th 5.8 -1.6 0.9 8th 0.8 26.8 lowest 3%
Ouyen (Post Office) 21.0 +0.7 29.3 11th 5.0 -1.7 -0.2 16th 4.0 32.8 v low 12%
Walpeup Research 20.9 +1.2 29.4 11th 4.7 -2.2 -0.8 16th 3.2 31.4 lowest 10%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 20.5 +0.2 29.7 11th 2.9 -2.1 -2.9 29th 2.4 27.1 v low 9%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 20.8 +0.5 29.6 27th 3.7 -2.2 -1.1 16th 2.2 26.9 lowest 8%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 19.1   28.1 11th 2.8   -2.6 29th 4.6
Nhill Aerodrome 17.9 -0.6 27.1 11th 3.9 -2.0 -1.2 25th 6.8 30.2 v low 23%
Warracknabeal Museum 19.1 +0.9 28.0 11th 3.8 -2.1 -1.5 8th 2.9 41.2 lowest 7%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 16.4 -0.7 25.1 11th 4.9 -1.8 0.1 2nd 12.4 49.2 v low 25%
Grampians (Mount William) 8.2 -0.7 16.6 11th 1.0 -1.2 -2.6 16th 49.6 116.6 v low 43%
Horsham Aerodrome 18.1 0.0 27.5 11th 2.3 -2.2 -3.0 29th 5.2 37.6 lowest 14%
Kanagulk 16.0 -0.6 25.0 11th 3.7 -2.0 -1.3 26th 20.0 41.9 v low 48%
Longerenong 18.5 +1.2 27.3 11th 2.7 -2.4 -3.8 16th 7.4 40.5 v low 18%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 12.2 +0.3 20.1 27th 3.1 -1.1 -1.1 29th 19.2 69.7 v low 28%
Stawell Aerodrome 16.5 -0.2 25.3 11th 4.3 -1.8 -0.4 29th 7.6 50.8 lowest 15%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 19.7 +0.8 27.7 11th 3.0 -2.4 -1.7 8th 3.0 36.1 v low 8%
Echuca Aerodrome 19.6 +1.3 28.5 27th 4.0 -2.3 -1.5 17th 7.7 38.9 v low 20%
Kerang 20.5 +1.4 29.8 27th 5.1 -1.5 0.6 16th 5.6 35.5 v low 16%
Kyabram 19.1 +1.5 26.9 27th 4.0 -1.3 -1.2 17th 13.2 41.7 low 32%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 17.7 +0.7 26.7 27th 2.9 -1.6 -1.8 2nd 16.6 51.1 v low 32%
Shepparton Airport 18.8 +0.6 26.1 27th 4.0 -1.5 -1.2 17th 10.4 36.9 low 28%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 18.3 +0.8 25.7 27th 4.0 -1.4 -1.7 17th 15.4 42.7 low 36%
Yarrawonga 19.4 +0.9 25.9 27th 2.9 -2.3 -1.2 17th 15.4 43.3 v low 36%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 17.8 +0.1 23.6 27th 2.3 -2.3 -3.0 30th 13.5 42.4 v low 32%
Corryong Airport     21.0 23rd 1.5 -1.7 -2.5 21st 52.6 66.4 average 79%
Dartmouth Reservoir 17.0 +0.4 21.3 11th     -2.1 17th 47.8 103.0 low 46%
Hunters Hill 13.1 +0.8 17.1 23rd 3.8 -0.7 -2.6 16th 49.8 117.1 low 43%
Rutherglen Research 18.0 +0.8 23.7 27th 0.9 -3.3 -3.8 17th 29.2 54.0 low 54%
Strathbogie 14.6 +0.3 19.4 27th 1.8 -2.0 -3.1 17th 33.0 94.3 low 35%
Wangaratta Aero 18.2 +0.6 23.6 27th 1.7 -2.9 -2.4 17th 13.4 54.1 v low 25%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Falls Creek 4.7 -0.1 10.3 10th -2.1 -1.2 -7.7 2nd 6.6 115.4 lowest 6%
Mount Buller 4.0 -1.0 10.6 10th -2.0 -1.3 -6.9 2nd 61.6 146.4 low 42%
Mount Hotham 3.3 -0.2 11.5 10th -3.0 -1.4 -8.0 16th 60.8 128.8 low 47%
Omeo 15.7 +0.4 19.5 12th 1.4 -1.8 -5.0 20th 27.2 52.0 v low 52%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 15.7 -0.1 23.6 15th 5.5 -1.0 2.0 16th 25.0 70.8 v low 35%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 15.9 0.0 27.0 15th 9.4 -0.3 5.6 16th 17.6 71.9 v low 24%
Gelantipy 14.1 +0.3 19.9 14th 2.9 -1.6 -1.4 20th 38.2 58.8 low 65%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 17.6 -0.6 26.7 15th 6.6 -1.3 1.2 4th 24.8 50.8 v low 49%
Mallacoota 17.0 -0.5 29.0 15th 6.8 -1.5 2.8 17th 19.4 78.9 v low 25%
Mount Nowa Nowa 16.9 -0.1 24.5 14th 6.7 -1.2 3.0 29th 26.4 62.5 lowest 42%
Orbost 17.5 -0.8 26.8 15th     4.0 13th 22.8 56.9 v low 40%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 17.2 +0.6 27.6 15th     6.0 29th 32.6 75.8 v low 43%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 18.5 +0.8 25.7 27th 4.3 -1.6 -0.2 4th 28.0 51.8 low 54%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 15.5   22.2 27th 7.0   0.6 26th 77.2
East Sale 17.9 +0.8 25.7 27th 4.3 -1.3 -0.5 3rd 26.8 50.3 low 53%
East Sale Airport 18.4   25.9 27th 4.7   -0.2 4th 27.8
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 16.9 -0.1 24.4 27th 4.3 -1.6 -2.6 3rd 54.8 73.9 average 74%
Mount Baw Baw 5.0 -0.7 10.8 10th -1.1 -1.0 -5.6 16th
Mount Moornapa 16.9 +0.6 24.8 27th 6.1 -0.8 2.4 29th 31.4 53.4 low 59%
Nilma North (Warragul) 16.0   23.4 27th 5.0   -1.1 3rd 66.4
Pound Creek 16.1 -0.6 22.9 27th 6.7 -0.8 0.1 26th 79.0 80.4 average 98%
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 14.6 +0.4 21.8 27th 9.6 +0.6 6.0 16th 69.0 98.8 low 70%
Yarram Airport 17.1 -0.2 25.1 27th 4.1 -2.2 -2.1 26th 49.0 49.4 average 99%
East Central (district 86)
Cerberus 16.5 0.0 24.0 11th 6.8 -0.8 -0.2 4th 41.8 66.6 low 63%
Coldstream 17.1 -0.1 22.4 27th 3.0 -2.6 -1.9 3rd 23.4 68.3 v low 34%
Essendon Airport 17.6 +0.8 24.0 27th 6.6 -0.2 1.4 4th 14.6 50.9 v low 29%
Ferny Creek 13.3   19.6 27th 5.5   0.9 16th 42.8
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 17.2   24.2 27th 8.1   3.4 4th 16.4
Melbourne Airport 17.4 +0.7 24.3 27th 5.7 -1.4 1.7 4th 16.4 46.6 v low 35%
Moorabbin Airport 17.2 +0.3 24.6 27th 7.1 -1.0 1.7 24th 25.8 64.0 v low 40%
Rhyll 16.1 0.0 21.3 27th 9.0 -0.5 5.0 16th 48.2 68.1 low 71%
Scoresby Research Institute 17.4 +0.9 24.1 27th     0.8 3rd 33.0 82.4 v low 40%
Viewbank 17.4 -0.3 24.6 27th 5.7 -2.1 0.5 4th 15.2 54.0 v low 28%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 18.2 +0.5 26.2 27th 5.9 -0.8 -0.4 8th 15.0 44.7 v low 34%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 17.1   24.9 27th 6.7   1.2 4th 21.6
Laverton RAAF 17.7 +0.7 25.3 27th 6.3 -0.4 0.8 4th 11.8 48.6 lowest 24%
Sheoaks 15.1 -0.4 23.1 11th 5.5 -0.7 -0.3 4th 21.6 48.0 v low 45%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 16.1 +0.4 25.2 27th 3.3 -1.8 -1.0 2nd 12.0 60.7 lowest 20%
Eildon Fire Tower 13.5 0.0 18.2 27th 4.8 -1.0 0.5 16th 33.4 63.8 low 52%
Lake Eildon 17.2 +0.6 22.6 14th 3.9 -1.7 -0.4 3rd 36.0 81.6 v low 44%
Mangalore Airport 17.7 +0.9 24.4 27th 3.0 -2.3 -2.8 17th 19.4 54.4 low 36%
Maryborough 17.4 +0.7 25.7 27th 3.7 -1.7 -1.0 16th 9.0 51.9 v low 17%
Redesdale 17.5 +1.2 25.2 27th 2.4 -1.8 -1.5 2nd 14.4 53.2 v low 27%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 13.5 +0.3 19.3 27th 4.9 -0.8 1.0 29th 17.8 60.7 v low 29%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 15.9 +0.7 24.0 11th 3.2 -1.9 -3.2 8th 9.8 60.8 lowest 16%
Ballarat Aerodrome 14.2 +0.3 22.6 27th 3.3 -1.5 -2.1 29th 20.4 71.4 v low 29%
Westmere 15.3 -0.5 22.9 11th 3.3 -1.7 -3.9 26th 14.8 47.9 v low 31%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 16.3 +0.1 24.1 11th 7.6 -0.6 3.6 16th 30.6 58.9 v low 52%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 15.5 -0.4 25.3 11th 9.2 -0.3 6.5 29th 36.2 72.9 v low 50%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 14.9 -0.3 23.9 11th 8.9 +0.4 5.8 4th 56.8 90.1 low 63%
Casterton 15.7 -0.6 23.3 11th 5.1 -1.1 -0.1 3rd 33.8 65.9 v low 51%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 14.2 -0.4 21.8 11th 5.8 -0.7 1.3 29th 38.2 55.6 low 69%
Dartmoor 15.7   24.0 11th 6.0   -0.4 3rd 37.4 70.1 low 53%
Hamilton Airport 15.0 -0.3 23.3 11th 4.7 -1.1 -0.3 16th 28.6 67.2 v low 43%
Mortlake Racecourse 15.7 -0.1 24.1 11th 4.6 -1.1 -3.0 26th 23.4 56.8 lowest 41%
Port Fairy AWS 16.2 -0.4 24.9 11th 7.8 -0.5 3.1 8th 38.6 68.8 v low 56%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 15.2 -0.1 23.9 11th 7.1 -0.4 2.1 4th 72.8 87.2 average 83%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 15.5 -0.6 23.4 11th 5.9 -0.9 -0.5 26th 44.4 73.9 low 60%

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Monday 1 October 2018. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries